spiders


English!!  Garden, plants:    Animals, insects in the garden:               Dutch dunes, countries:  
garden
spring
spring'07
summer
summerflowers
weeds
autumn
winter
houseplants
euphorbia
links
home
animals/links
spiders
butterflies
dragonflies
flies
hoverflies/1
hoverflies/2
wasps/bees
beetles
bugs
Insects other
 
dunes
Australia
England1        2 
France1          2
Ireland
Italy
Scotland
Spain
Czechia
Croatia
 
 


To the Dutch website / Naar de Nederlandse website.Nederlands / Dutch

                                                                     Spiders 

Spiders belong to the class Arachnida. Arthropods such as scorpions, harvestmen, ticks and mites are also among that group.
The rear body (abdomen) is softer than the front. The head and the thorax with legs are fused. This part of the spiders is called prosoma. The head and the thorax with legs are fused. This part of the spiders is called prosoma. They have eight legs. The first pair of legs is usually the longest. 
No real antennae only two palps, which are used to sense. The adult males and females have different palps. The palps consist of six segments. The last segment of the adult male is knob-shaped. This bulbous segment stores the sperm packet just before mating. The mating can be dangerous to smaller males. The males of some families are sometimes eaten by the females after mating. 

Most of the spiders have eight eyes. But there are also spiders with six eyes. The eyes are not as great. 
They are predators. Their method of hunting is different.
Wheel-shaped webs are best known.
Not all spiders us webs to hunt. The bite of spiders in the Netherlands is not dangerous for humans.
More information can be found at wikipedia
 

Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae)
These spiders make spiral wheel-shaped webs.
People often ask how the first thread is attached. From a point they release a length of a thread in the wind. They wait until the thread is stuck to another point. Then the web can be made​​. 

A picture of young orb-weavers (araneida).  A picture of young orb-weavers (araneida). Most likely the European garden spider, because these spiders are the most common in our garden. But that is not certain. Photo 3-6-2013.

European garden spider,  diadem spider, or cross spider (Araneus diadematus). Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

Kruisspin (Araneus diadematus). Familie wielwebspinnen (Araneida).

European garden spider,  diadem spider, or cross spider (Araneus diadematus). Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

European garden spider,  diadem spider, or cross spider (Araneus diadematus). Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae). European garden spiderdiadem spider, or cross spider (Araneus diadematus). Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

At the end of the summer the garden is full of webs. Many webs are from the European garden spider. They often span a great distance. 
The females are  adult in the second year of their lives. They are much larger than the males. That is at the end of the summer. Hence the many big webs. The mating is risky for the males, for they can be eaten by the female.
When it is freezing the adult spiders die.
The eggs are in cocoons and are deposited in autumn. This way they hibernate. The young spiders, which hatch in the spring, release long silken threads to travel on the wind to other areas. (ballooning)
Cross spider because of the the white dots on its back forming a cross. Its colour is from light yellow to dark grey.
Length 11 - 18 mm.
Western Europe, parths of  North America. Photos 2-10-2010, 15-8-2012.

German: Gartenkreuzspinne  French: épeire diadème

Walnut Orb-Weaver Spider (Nuctenea umbratica)

Walnut Orb-Weaver Spider (Nuctenea umbratica)

Walnut Orb-Weaver Spider (Nuctenea umbratica)

Walnut Orb-Weaver Spider (Nuctenea umbratica) Walnut Orb-Weaver Spider (Nuctenea umbratica) Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae)

Walnut Orb-Weaver Spiders have a flattened body, with a leathery skin.  
The spider on the photo was on top of the window. It felt threatened by me. When it failed to hide, it let itself down to the ground on a safety line. Then it pretended to be dead. It folded its legs around.
The spiders are nocturnal and shy by day. It is hiding under the loose bark of trees. You also often find the spider around houses. The web looks like the web of a cross spider. From the web the spider makes a signaling thread to the hiding place. After dusk it sits in the center of the web. Especially moths should beware.
Length male  9 mm lang, female 14 mm. A common spider in Central Europe
. Photos 17-10-2009. 
The spider on this photo is very dark. But the color ranges from red brown to grey brown. On its body a leaf-like marking.
Platte wielwebspin (Nuctenea umbratica)
  Photo 28-5-2010. A Walnut Orb-Weaver Spider with the leaf-like marking.
German: Spaltenkreuzspinne  French: épeire des fissures

Araniella spec. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae)

Araniella spec. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

Araniella spec. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae)

Araniella spec. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

The Araniella cucurbitina and the Araniella opisthographa are not to distinguish from a photo.
They are recognizable by the yellow-green abdomen. 
In July, the eggs are laid in cocoons near the web. The very young spiders are light in color. In the autumn they are red, brown. A good camouflage among autumn leaves. They hibernate.
Males 5 mm, females 8 mm.
Small webs. Approximately 10 cm diameter.

Photo 30-5-2009, 28-5-2010, 17-6-2012.
Araniella spec. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae). Male. Male. Photo 24-6-2013.

German: Kürbisspinnen  French: épeire concombre

Zygiella x-notata. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

Zygiella x-notata. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

Zygiella x-notata. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

Zygiella x-notata. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).

Zygiella x-notata. Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae).


Grey-brown spiders with a leaf-like marking on the abdomen. At the front of the abdomen (near the head), it has a light spot.
The web has to the top in the corner two sectors without connecting threads. 
You can find the webs of the Zygiella x-notata often in window frames. 
Males up to 7 mm, females up to 11 mm.
The eggs overwinter in a cocoon. The females you can find late in the year.
Europe, parts of Asia, North and South America.


Photos 12-9-2009, 17-10-2009, 22-11-2012..

 

 

 

Mangora acalypha

Mangora acalypha Family orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae)

An easily recognizable spin. By the spots on the body and the black border and center stripe on the carapace..

Webs on bushes and low vegetation.
Male 3 - 3,5 mm, female 5,5 - 6 mm.

The Palearctic regions.

German: Streifenkreuzspinne

 

Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae) 
Stretch spiders have an elongated body form. They have long legs. They can camouflage themselves well on a stem or  an elongated  leaf. Than they stretch their front legs forward and the others legs in the other direction. 
The web is like a spiral wheel-shaped web, but with a hole in the middle.

Stretch spider spec. (Tetragnatha spec.) Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae) 

Stretch spider spec. (Tetragnatha spec.) Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae) 

 

Stretch spider spec. (Tetragnatha spec.) Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae) 

Stretch spider spec. (Tetragnatha spec.) Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae) 

There are similar species. They are not to identify from a picture.

Early summer I often see them  at the pond. 
Although I haven't seen it, they can walk over water.

Photos 30-6-12

 

Metellina spec. Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae).

Metellina spec. Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae).

Metellina spec. Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae).

Metellina spec. Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae). Metellina spec. Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae).

Like the money spiders metellina species  have a tuning fork figure on the carapace.
Metellina mengei  Length 5 mm. July - September or Metellina segmentata. They are very similar. Despite their name they are about the same time of the year.
According Jacomijn Princen: If the ventral hairs (not the bristles) are shorter than the diameter of the last leg segment of a front leg: It is the M. segmentata. When they are twice as long, it is is the M. mengei. This feature applies only to males. 
Photos 17-5-2009, 12-9-2010, 26-9-2012.

Metellina spec.young Family Stretch spiders (Tetragnathidae). A young metellina. Photo 3-10-2012.   German: Herbstspinnen  

Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae) 
They have a  bulbous body. Messy webs with sticky threads.  They have rows of tiny bristles on the tip of their hind legs they use to spread out their silk. Tangle-web spiders (Theridiidae)  have a comb on the underside of the tarsus of leg IV. Tangled nest spiders (Amaurobiidae)  have a comb on the top of the metatars.

Enoplognatha ovata or Enoplognatha latimana. And a cocoon.Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Enoplognatha ovata or Enoplognatha latimana. And a cocoon. Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Enoplognatha ovata or Enoplognatha latimana. With young spiders and an ero. Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Enoplognatha ovata or Enoplognatha latimana. Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Enoplognatha ovata or Enoplognatha latimana. Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Two very similar species. The colour may vary. Always two rows of black spots.
The cocoons with eggs are light blue. You can find them on leaves curled by spinning

Length 3 - 6 mm

Photos left 27-8-2012, 24-9-2012. Enoplognatha and a cocoon, with youg spiders and an Ero. 

Enoplognatha ovata or Enoplognatha latimana.  A young Enoplofnatha. Foto 16-2-2014. The dark spots are very well visible. 

Episinus angulatus Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Episinus angulatus Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Episinus angulatus Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Episinus angulatus Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Episinus angulatus Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

They can stretch their front legs forward like Stretch spiders. In 2009 I found this young spider on a flowerpot.
They make their H-shaped web at or near ground level. 
The Episinus angulatus has a flat, thin body, but it broadens a bit near the end.  
About 5 mm

Photos 8-10-2009, 11-10-2010, 30-2-2012, 19-4-2012.

Episinus angulatus Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae).  Now I find every year some spiders of this species. 

 

Rabbit hutch spider (Steatoda bipunctata). Male Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Rabbit hutch spider (Steatoda bipunctata). Male Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Rabbit hutch spider (Steatoda bipunctata). Male. Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Rabbit hutch spider (Steatoda bipunctata). Male Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Rabbit hutch spider (Steatoda bipunctata). Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

The carapace is glossy shiny brown.
The Steatoda bipunctata spider is often found under trees and in or around houses, barns and garages. On the large pboto a male, which can compare with the female on the last small photo on the left.
Length  4 to 7 mm.
Photos 17-10-2009, 25-4-2012, 20-10-2014.

Rabbit hutch spider (Steatoda bipunctata). Female Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae).  Rabbit hutch spider (Steatoda bipunctata). Fale Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae).  Photos 13-2-2010. A hibernating Rabbit hutch spider under the lid of a garbage. Maybe a young spider.

German: Fettspinne  

Anelosimus vittatus, Seycellocesa vittatus

Anelosimus vittatus, Seycellocesa vittatus

 

Anelosimus vittatus, Seycellocesa vittatus

Anelosimus vittatus, Seycellocesa vittatus. Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae) 

Length female 3 - 3.5 mm, male 2.5 - 3.5 mm.
Low in the trees, in bushes and high vegetation.

 

Paidiscura pallens. Young male. Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Paidiscura pallens. Young male. Family tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

Paidiscura pallens. Young male. Family tangle-web spiders,  cobweb spiders or comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae). 

A tiny, pale yellow spider. The abdomen of the male is dark spotty and of the female pale yellow. Length female 1,25 - 1,5 mm, male 1.7 - 1.75 mm. Male april - June. Female throughout the year.
Especially along forest edges under oak leaves.
Photos 11-10-2016.

Family sheet weavers (from the shape of their webs),  money spiders (Linyphiidae)
sheet webs with criss-cross threads above it to let the insects fall down in the web. The spider hangs upside down under it.

Linyphia hortensis. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae) Linyphia hortensis. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae) Linyphia hortensis. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae) Linyphia hortensis. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae)

Kleine heidehangmatspin (Microlinyphia pusilla) Linyphia hortensis. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae)

At first I thought to Microlinyphia pusilla. But according to Pierre Oger is Linyphia hortensis most likely. Also because they are found in May in the garden. In the Netherlands mainly in May - June.

The female is dark and has a white band on the side. On the abdomen are white spots. These are variable. The males are not similar. They have narrow abdomen and their legs are brown red. They make their web quite close to the ground. 
About 5 mm.

  Linyphia hortensis. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae)  Photos May 2010

Money spider (Linyphia triangularis). Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Money spider (Linyphia triangularis). Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Money spider (Linyphia triangularis). Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Money spider (Linyphia triangularis). Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Money spider (Linyphia triangularis). Family sheet weavers,  money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Money spiders have a tuning fork figure on the carapace. The Linyphia tenuipalpis is similar, but this spider is mainly found in the eastern Netherlands and is rarer.

The cocoons with eggs are hidden under the leaves.

Photos: 7-12-2009, 12-9-2012, 18-9-2012.

German: Gemeine Baldachinspinne 

 

Lepthyphantes minutus. Genus Lepthyphantes. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Lepthyphantes minutus. Genus Lepthyphantes. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Lepthyphantes minutus. Genus Lepthyphantes. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Lepthyphantes minutus. Genus Lepthyphantes. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

In any case Lepthyphantes. The species is not certain. Recognizable by the dark carapace and striped legs.
On the site
eurospiders.com are gedetailed  photos.
You can find it near tree trunks I found this spider in October under a bag of sand.

Lepthyphantes are small spiders. This is a larger species. But still small. 
Length 3 - 4 mm.

Photos 18-10-2009.

 

Platform hammock-spider (Neriene peltata). Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

 

 

Platform hammock-spider (Neriene peltata). Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

 

Platform hammock-spider (Neriene peltata). Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

The back is white with a dark brown central stripe. The abdomen is striped brown and white.
Body length about 5 mm.

Male: April - July. Female: April - September.

Photos 2-6-2009.
  
German: Waldbaldachinspinne  


Herb hammock spider (Neriene clathrata). Male. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

Herb hammock spider (Neriene clathrata). Male. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

 

Herb hammock spider (Neriene clathrata).Male.Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae). Herb hammock spider (Neriene clathrata). Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

The photo is of a male. The palps are striking. The body is dark brown. To the abdomen is a band of light spots. The legs are orange-brown, without tires. It looks like the Microlinyphia pusilla. The abdomen of the female is nicely marked.
They make their webs close to the ground in plants and shrubs.
Approximately 4-5 mm.
Adult: March - November Photos 17-02-2012.  

Herb hammock spider (Neriene clathrata). Female. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae). Herb hammock spider (Neriene clathrata). Female. Family sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae). Herb hammock spider (Neriene clathrata), female. 30-3-2015.

Dwarfspider (Erigonidae) Family dwarfspiders (Erigonidae)

 

 

Dwarfspider (Erigonidae) Family dwarfspiders (Erigonidae) Dwarfspider (Erigonidae) Family dwarfspiders (Erigonidae) Also called subfamily of sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae).

This spider was about two mm. There are many species. From a photograph, they are not to determine.
The dwarfspider from 2011 was a little larger. It is an other species.

  
Photo 15-11-2010   

Dwarfspider (Erigonidae) Family dwarfspiders (Erigonidae) Also called subfamily of sheet weavers, money spiders (Linyphiidae). Photo 25-11-2011

Familie Kaardertjes (Dictynidae)
They create a tangle of silken fibers.

Nigma walckenaeri. Family Dictynidae.

Nigma walckenaeri. Family Dictynidae.

Nigma walckenaeri. Family Dictynidae.

Nigma walckenaeri. Family Dictynidae.

This green spider lives on leaves and is well camouflaged. The male has a reddish brown carapace.

As you can see on the photos it makes very fine cobwebs. From the curled leaves it makes a shelter by cobwebs.
The male stays with the female and there is no no danger, it is eaten by the female, like most other spiders. But when it dies, it is still eaten.

Length 3 - 5 mm.
Adults in August - October. 

Photos 18-10-2009, 3-10-2012, 19-10-2012.

Family Vibrating Spiders (Pholcidae)
Spiders with a small body and very long legs. They make messy, irregular, tangled webs.

 

Daddy-long-legs spider, cellar spider or skull spider, vibrating spider,  house spider (Pholcus phalangioides). Family Pholcidae.

 

Daddy-long-legs spider, cellar spider or skull spider, vibrating spider,  house spider (Pholcus phalangioides). Family Pholcidae.

Daddy-long-legs spider, cellar spider or skull spider, vibrating spider,  house spider (Pholcus phalangioides). Family Pholcidae.

The spider has got its name vibration spider, because it is shaking when it is threatened. 
Just like in our house you can find this spider in most houses and barns. Often in dark places.
They make a rather messy web. Often near the ceiling. When the web is dirty, they make a new one. They don't eat their own web like many other spiders. My wife is not very happy with these webs.
The spider throws tough web material over the victim in the web until it is harmless.
The eggs are held together with a few wires. The female hold the eggs in her pedipalps.
Body length females: about 9 mm. Males are slighty smaller. 

Photos 8-10-2009, 6-11-2012.

German: Große Zitterspinne French: Pholque phalangide.

Family tangled nest spiders, night spiders, hacklemesh weavers (Amaurobiidae) 
Night spiders because they are active at night. They make  wooly combed catching silk. It is a not sticking, messy web, but when the victim in the web tries to free itself, it  becomes even more tangled into the stretching, wooly silk. With a comb on the rear legs the spider comb the silk wooly. Tangled nest spiders (Amaurobiidae)  have a comb on the top of the metatars. Tangle-web spiders (Theridiidae)  have a comb on the underside of the tarsus of leg IV. 

Male. Window spider, Amaurobius fenestralis or Amaurobius similis. Family tangled nest spiders, night spiders, hacklemesh weavers (Amaurobiidae).

Male. Window spider, Amaurobius fenestralis or Amaurobius similis. Family tangled nest spiders, night spiders, hacklemesh weavers (Amaurobiidae).

Window spider, Amaurobius fenestralis or Amaurobius similis. Family tangled nest spiders, night spiders, hacklemesh weavers (Amaurobiidae).

Both species are quite similar. You can find them in the house. But usually they are on outside walls
near windows, but also under bark and stones.
On the abdomen, the window spider has some V-shaped spots.
The spider in the pictures on the left is a man. I found them under the lid of a garbage can.

Length 7 - 12 mm

Female. Window spider, Amaurobius fenestralis or Amaurobius similis. Family tangled nest spiders, night spiders, hacklemesh weavers (Amaurobiidae).  Female. Window spider, Amaurobius fenestralis or Amaurobius similis. Family tangled nest spiders, night spiders, hacklemesh weavers (Amaurobiidae). Female. Photos 9-10-2012. 30-4-2010. 

Family funnel-web spiders(Agelenidae)

Dust spider or dustbunny spider (Tegenaria atrica). Genus Tegenaria.  Family funnel-web spiders (Agelenidae)

Dust spider or dustbunny spider (Tegenaria atrica). Genus Tegenaria.  Family funnel-web spiders (Agelenidae)

Dust spider or dustbunny spider (Tegenaria atrica). Genus Tegenaria.  Family funnel-web spiders (Agelenidae)

Housespider spec  (Tegenaria spec.) Genus Tegenaria.  Family funnel-web spiders (Agelenidae)

Housespider spec  (Tegenaria spec.) Genus Tegenaria.  Family funnel-web spiders (Agelenidae)
Probably a young dust spider or dustbunny spider (Tegenaria atrica).

The Tegenaria atrica  (like the other species) has no markings on the gray-brown legs.  
It lives in and near houses. In other countries it is living at cliffs, under rocks or in caves.
They make a horizontal, dense funnel web.  
By day it hides itself. "At night is it in his web. The eggs are laid in April. Young  spiders appear in May. The males don't live very long. The females, however can live up to six years.

Photo 25-4-2011 Males 15 mm, females 18 mm.   Common in Europe.

Dust spider or dustbunny spider (Tegenaria atrica). Genus Tegenaria.  Family funnel-web spiders (Agelenidae) Dust spider or dustbunny spider (Tegenaria atrica). Photos 3-7-2011.

 

These spiders do not use webs to capture prey.

Family Spitting spiders (Scytodidae) and also belongs to the family of six eyed spiders. (Haplogynae)
They spit a poisonous silk in a zig-zaggy pattern at their prey. The prey is stuck on the surface. Distance up to about 2 cm. In the Netherlands Scytodes thoracia is the only species. 

Spitting Spider (Scytodes thoracica) Family Spitting spiders (Scytodidae).

Spitting Spider (Scytodes thoracica) Family Spitting spiders (Scytodidae).

 

Spitting Spider (Scytodes thoracica) Family Spitting spiders (Scytodidae).

Spitting Spider (Scytodes thoracica) Family Spitting spiders (Scytodidae).

A light brown spider with a flecked pattern of dark spots.  The spider has long legs with dark rings. The thorax is larger than the abdomen. Unlike most spiders with eight eyes the Spitting spider has six eyes.
The silk, they spit is poisonous. In the head-thorax are silk glands, which are connected to venom glands. They also have silk glands in the body behind.
The females carry the egg mass under their body.
In the Netherlands they mainly are found in the houses, for the winters are too cold for them. Originally they live in southern Europe. 
Length 3 - 6 mm.
Photo 27-3-2009 
Two years later. Photos 01-10-2011   

German: Speispinne, Leimschleuderspinne  

Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae) 
Some species are chasing their prey (small distances). Other wolfspiders wait for a prey (in a burrow).

 

wolf spider-The females carry their egg sacs by attaching them to their spinnerets.

wolf spider The females carry their egg sacs by attaching them to their spinnerets.

Wolf spider spec. (Pardosa spec.) Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae).

Wolf spider spec. (Pardosa spec.) Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae). Photo 27-3-2011.

The species can't be determined from a photo. They are walking around in our garden in search of victims. Therefore they have a good vision.
The females carry their egg sacs by attaching them to their spinnerets.  When the young leave the sac, they stay on the abdomen of mother.
Wolf spider spec. (Pardosa spec.) When the young leave the sac, they stay on the abdomen of mother. With young spiders on the back.  Photo 6-8-2010.
Sometimes a wolf spider make a mistake. Here a female has a faded woodlouse as a cocoon.  Photo  30-8-2010     Sometimes a wolf spider make a mistake. Here a female has a faded woodlouse as a cocoon. Photo 30-8-2010.       
German: Wolfspinne 

Pirate wolf spider spec. (Pirata spec.) Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae)

 

 

Pirate wolf spider spec. (Pirata spec.) Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae)

Pirate wolf spider spec. (Pirata spec.) Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae).

This spider was among the plants, I took away from the pond. The name "pirate" it owes to the fact that he lives in the water. They can walk on water. There are similar species.
Parate wolf spiders
have a tuning fork figure on the carapace. 
The cocoon,
you see here is waterproof.

Photo 28-7-2011.   

German: Wasserjäger        

Trochosa territcola or Trochosa spinipalpis. Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae). Genus Trochosa. 

Trochosa territcola or Trochosa spinipalpis. Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae). Genus Trochosa. 

Trochosa territcola or Trochosa spinipalpis. Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae). Genus Trochosa. 

Trochosa territcola or Trochosa spinipalpis. Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae). Genus Trochosa. 

In Europe there are four species. Trochosa terricola and Trochosa spinipalpis look very much alike. They hunt at night. By day they hide. This female, however, was in the sun on a leaf.

Photos 18-4-2010.

 

Aulonia albimana. Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae).

 

Aulonia albimana. Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae).

Not in the garden but in the dunes 4 km from our house.

Aulonia albimana. Family wolf spiders (Lycosidae). 

A small wolf spider. Here it is walking on the flower of a willow. The front part is dark brown to black with a thin white border around it. The abdomen is dark brown, dark gray. Brown legs, only the upper part of the front legs is black.
The middle segments of the black pedipalps of both the male and the female are  white. (not shown in the picture)
Unlike the most wolf spiders it makes a web. It is a funnel web near the ground. But they also walk around. The spider in the picture was somewhat higher.
It is found in dry areas with low plants, in the Netherlands in the dunes. In the rest of the Netherlands, it is quite rare.
Length to 4.5 mm. Photos 21-4-2013. Europe.

 

Family  Nursery web spiders (Pisauridae) 

Nursery web spiders make egg sacs, which they first carry under the body. When the eggs are about to hatch, the cocoon will be attached to a plant. Therefore the female spider will build a kind of woven tent. A nursery tent. That's why they got the name nursery web spider. In the Netherlands there are two genera. Pisaura and Dolomedes.
The six eyes of a nursery spider have more or less the same size. The wolf spiders also have six eyes, but have two prominent eyes.

Nursery webspider, Pisaura mirabilis

 

 

Nursery webspider, Pisaura mirabilis

Nursery webspider, Pisaura mirabilis. Family  Nursery web spiders (Pisauridae). 
In the Netherlands the only species of the family.

You can recognize a nursery web spider by the light triangular flaps besides the eyes and the light line on the head. The color is gray to brown.
They hunt on the plants. You often see them in the sun. Just like in these pictures. Then they look like a running crab spider.
For mating, the male offers the female an insect. The nest they make between the grass. 

Length 10 - 15 mm.
   
German: Listspinne, Raubspinne oder Brautgeschenkspinne French: La pisaure admirable 

 

Family Cell spiders, woodlouse hunters (Dysderidae)

Roodwitte Celspin (Dysdera crocata). Familie celspinnen (Dysderidae).

Roodwitte Celspin (Dysdera crocata). Familie celspinnen (Dysderidae).

Woodlous spider (Dysdera crocata). Cell spiders, woodlouse hunters (Dysderidae). Photos 29-6-2012.

The carapace is red brown, the abdomen is white-yellow, white-gray. They feed on woodlice. With the elongated fangs it captures the woodlice.  (Between the segments of woodlice.)
In my garden they are under stones and wood. I found this spider by accident because I had cut a piece of bamboo on the compost heap. It had made a nest. I have put back the bamboo as good as possible. 

Males 7 mm - 10 mm. Females 15 mm - 20 mm. You can find these spiders almost anywhere in the world.
The woodlous spiders Dysdera crocata and Dysdera erythrina are very similar. Dysdera crocata has a few spines on the posterior thigh. The bottom photo shows two spines.   
German: Kleine asseljäger (Dysdera erythrina) 

Roodwitte Celspin (Dysdera crocata). Familie celspinnen (Dysderidae). Woodlous spider (Dysdera crocata). On the large picture you can see the spines.

Harpactea rubicunda  Family Cell spiders, woodlouse hunters (Dysderidae)  First sighting in the Netherlands!

Harpactea rubicunda  Family Cell spiders, woodlouse hunters (Dysderidae)  First sighting in the Netherlands!

Harpactea rubicunda  Family Cell spiders, woodlouse hunters (Dysderidae)  First sighting in the Netherlands! Harpactea rubicunda. Family Cell spiders, woodlouse hunters (Dysderidae).  First sighting in the Netherlands!

When I opened the water meter box (dry), I saw a few young spiders and an adult spider of the family Dysderidae. I thought, they were woodlous siders. Luckily I have send pictures to the forum "waarnemng.nl". There Jacomijn Prinsen told me, it was probably a Harpactea rubicunda. In the Netherland this species was never found!! Hopefully I find them again to be sure. 

Harpactea rubicunda has the many spines on the rear thighs.

Harpactea rubicunda  Family Cell spiders, woodlouse hunters (Dysderidae)  First sighting in the Netherlands!  Harpactea rubicunda  Family Cell spiders, woodlouse hunters (Dysderidae)  First sighting in the Netherlands! Photos 27-3-2011

Family Sac Spiders (Clubionidae) 
Usually without much colour and therefore they are difficult to determine. They hunt at night. 

Sac spider spec. (Clubiona spec.) Family Sac Spiders (Clubionidae).

Sac spider spec. (Clubiona spec.) Family Sac Spiders (Clubionidae).

Sac spider spec. (Clubiona spec.) Family Sac Spiders (Clubionidae).

Sac spider spec. (Clubiona spec.) Family Sac Spiders (Clubionidae). Sac spider spec. (Clubiona spec.) Family Sac Spiders

The spider in the picture is still young.
You often find them among the leaves, under stones, or bark. They make at daytime a small web (a silken tube or sac), where they hide and sleep during the day. Such a sac they also use for the eggs
To hunt at night they use no web. Length about 5 mm.

Photos left: An adult sac spider. Photo 18-9-2012. 
A youg sac spider, photo 21-12-2009. In December a spider hanged on a wire in the kitchen. I've put it in a jar, to photgraph it the next day. The next day it sat under a spinning against the glass wall. I have awoken it for the photo. When I was finished, I have put it in the overwintering plants.
According Jacomijn Prinsen: It is a subadult male, in the spring it will molt to adult. Than it can be determined with the palp under the microscope. But I don't think, I will find it back. Now it will be Clubiona spec.          
German: Sackspinnen

Family Ground spiders (Gnaphosidae).
This family closely related to Clubionidae.

Ground spider spec. (Gnaphosidae).

Ground spider spec. (Gnaphosidae).

There are several dark species, which are difficult to identify. Zelotes is possible. But it is not certain. 
They hunt at night and hide during the day. As a shelter, they weave a silk bag. This spider was a little confused, because it walked on the terrace by day.

Length about 8 mm
  
Photo 18-4-2011

Family Buzzing spiders (Anyphaenidae)

Buzzing spider  (Anyphaena accentuata)

Buzzing spider (Anyphaena accentuata). Buzzing spiders (Anyphaenidae).    

In the Netherlands it is the singel species of the buzzing spiders.  At night the buzzing spider hunts on the leaves of bushes and trees. On this photo the spider is sitting on the bamboo, which is designed for masonry bees to make nests in it. I am not really happy.
Under the leaves you can find cocoons with eggs, which are guarded by the females. The males are able to produce audible sounds by vibrating the abdomen against the leaves (for the females).
From light brown to grayish brown. They can be identified by the triangular dark spots on the rear body. And by the dark lateral bands on the carapace with light spots.
In winter they sit under the bark of dead trees.
Length 4 - 8 mm
Europe, Central Asia

Ph

Family crabspiders (Thomisidae)
Like crabs crabspiders have a flat body and powerful frontlegs and they are able to move sideways. They are oft sitting among or on leaves or flowers. 

Diaea dorsata.  Family crabspiders (Thomisidae).

Diaea dorsata.  Family crabspiders (Thomisidae).

Diaea dorsata.  Family crabspiders (Thomisidae). Diaea dorsata.  Family crabspiders (Thomisidae).

To recognize by the green carapace and legs. A brown with yellow abdomen.
Males 4 mm, 6 mm females.
This spider was missing a leg, but it did not bother. If it is not an adult, it gets a new leg after molting. In dangerous situations, these spiders and many other spiders are able to drop a leg.
Diaea dorsata.  Family crabspiders (Thomisidae).
Crabspiders don't make a web, but they use spider silk as security thread.
gh the air)    Photo: 21-10-09
Diaea dorsata. male Family crabspiders (Thomisidae).
The male Diaea dorsata has very long legs. Photo 16-5-2010.
German: Grüne Krabbenspinne, Grünbraune Krabbenspinne

 

 

 

Leaflitter Crab Spider (Ozyptila praticola) Leaflitter Crab Spider (Ozyptila praticola).  Family crabspiders (Thomisidae).

They can be found in the bushes and the lower part of trees. The female guards her cocoon with eggs.
There are twelve species Known in Europe. All very small spiders. Length 3 to 4 mm.

Photo 15-11-2010.
  

 

Xysticus lanio

Xysticus lanio

 

Xysticus lanio

Xysticus lanio. Familiy krabspinnen (Thomisidae). 

Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae)
Running crab spiders closely resemble crab spiders (Thomisidae), but their second set of legs are the longest. They chase for prey. Crab spiders wait for prey. Both species are able to move sideways.

Philodromus spec. Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae).

Philodromus spec. Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae).

Philodromus spec. Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae).

Philodromus spec. Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae).

What species it is, I can't say. A microscope is required!! It is able to run away sideways.
You often can  see them with spread legs close to a leaf.

Photos 29-4-2009, 6-6-2009, 13-6-2009.

German: Laufspinnen 

 

 

 

 

Philodromus dispar.  Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae).

Philodromus dispar.  Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae).

This is the male. The male Philodromus dispar is black or dark brown with white edges.  
The female  is variable in colour. 
About 5 mm.
Photo: 5-5-2012.


 Philodromus dispar  female Female Philodromus dispar 15-11-2010

 

Tuinrenspin (Philodromus aureolus)

 

Philodromus aureolus

Philodromus aureolus. Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae).

This is a male. Thin palps. Males have a metallic sheen. This spider have a grey colour. Often it is grey with a purple sheen. Females and young spiders have no metallic sheen. (Tan - brown)

They can be confused with Philodromus cespitum and Philodromus buxi.
May-August
Males: 4 to 5 mm. Females: 4 to 7 mm
The young spiders overwinter.

Photo 28-5-2010 Philodromus aureolus  Photo 30-5-2010 This spider is darker.

 

 

 

 

Tibellus oblongus or Tibellus maritimus. Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae). Tibellus oblongus or Tibellus maritimus. Family Running Crab Spiders (Philodromidae). Not in the gartden but in the dunes about 4 km from our house.

A light brown or pale yellow spider. It is elongated and slender. From the head runs a brown stripe on the midline of the abdomen. On the abdomen two small dark spots. The two species are very similar.

Length 7 - 10 mm.

Photo 17-6-2013.

Family jumping spiders (Salticidae)
Jumping spiders can jump from place to place, secured by a silk tether.

Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus). Subfamily Salticinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus). Subfamily Salticinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus). Subfamily Salticinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus). Subfamily Salticinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus). Subfamily Salticinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Zebra spiders are like the zebras black with white stripes of hairs. You can find it outside on the house walls in the sunshine. This spider can jump very well.
The four pairs of eyes are striking. In front of the head are two large and two small eyes. Above, it has two small eyes. They therefore have a good vision a very wide field of view.

In the Netherlands there are two other species. Namely Salticus cingulatus and Zebra Salticus nose.
They use a small white silk sac for hiding. The eggs are also laid in this sac. The adult spider overwinters.

Length 5 - 7 mm.
Widespread throughout Europe, northern Asia and North America 

Photos 30-4-2010 / 16-3-2011     
German: Zebraspringspinne  French: Saltique chevronné. 
 

Heliophanus spec. Subfamily Heliophaninae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Heliophanus spec. Subfamily Heliophaninae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Heliophanus spec. Subfamily Heliophaninae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

A jumping spider. There are some similar Heliophanus species in the Netherlands. A nice small spider. I often see it early summer in the garden.

Similar species:  Heliophanus cupreus Heliophanus flavipes

Photos 29-5-2010.  

 

Heliophanus cupreus. Subfamily Heliophaninae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

 

Heliophanus cupreus. Subfamily Heliophaninae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Heliophanus cupreus. Subfamily Heliophaninae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

In picture the left palp has a small circular hook. You have to look very well. When you can't find the hook it is Heliophanus spec. So it is very important, when you want to find the right name. (Thanks Willem Boomkens)

Palearctic.
  
Photos 2-6-2011.

Evarcha falcata. Subfamily Plexippinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Evarcha falcata. Subfamily Plexippinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Evarcha falcata. Subfamily Plexippinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae). Evarcha falcata. Subfamily Plexippinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Length male 5 mm. Length female about 7 mm.   Palearctic 

Photos 14-8-2010

Evarcha falcata. Subfamily Plexippinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae). Evarcha falcata. Subfamily Plexippinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).    Photos 26-9-2010

Marpissa muscosa male Subfamily marpissa Family jumping spiders (Salticidae)

Marpissa muscosa male Subfamily marpissa Family jumping spiders (Salticidae)

Marpissa muscosa male Subfamily marpissa Family jumping spiders (Salticidae)

Marpissa muscosa male Subfamily marpissa Family jumping spiders (Salticidae)

 

Marpissa muscosa. Subfamily marpissa. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

It is a large jumping spider.
In the Netherlands it is a widespread spider.
Mostly on trees. But they also can be found on wooden posts and wooden walls. They are well camouflaged with dark brown markings on the light brown surface.
German:  Rindenspringspinne 
  
Photos 24-4-2011. Marpissa muscosa female Subfamily marpissa Family jumping spiders (Salticidae)  female Photo 15-5-2011. Marpissa muscosa. Subfamily marpissa. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae). Nymph 5-4-2014.

Euophrys frontalis. Subfamily Euophryinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Euophrys frontalis. Subfamily Euophryinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Euophrys frontalis. Subfamily Euophryinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Euophrys frontalis. Subfamily Euophryinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Compared to the Marpissa muscosa the Euophrys frontalis is a tiny jumping spider. Around the eyes are red rings. The color is variable. There are light and dark spiders. The front legs are black.

Male 2 - 3 mm. Female 3 - 4 mm. 
Palearctic

Photo 21-5-2011

Sitticus pubescens. Subfamily Sitticinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Sitticus pubescens. Subfamily Sitticinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

Sitticus pubescens. Subfamily Sitticinae. Family jumping spiders (Salticidae).

You can find it near the house on walls, on the trunk of trees and rocks (not in the Netherlands of course). This male was walking on the tiles of the terrace.

Male 4 mm. Female 4 - 5 mm. 
Europe, United States.

Photos 3-6-2011.
    
German: Vierpunktspringspinnen 

Family Pirate spiders (Mimetidae)
In the Netherlands and in the surrounding countries you have of this family only the genus Ero. In the Netherlands there are four species:
Ero aphana, Ero cambridgei, Ero furcataEro tuberculata.

Ero spec. Genus Ero. Family Pirate spiders (Mimetidae).

Ero spec. Genus Ero. Family Pirate spiders (Mimetidae).

Ero spec. Genus Ero. Family Pirate spiders (Mimetidae). cocoon

Ero spec. Genus Ero. Family Pirate spiders (Mimetidae).

Ero spec. Genus Ero. Family Pirate spiders (Mimetidae).

Spiders can attack each other. There is even a specialized family spiders. Namely the Pirate spiders, Mimetidae.
The ero don't spin a web. They bite a spider in its own web mostly in its legs with a quickly paralyzing venom.  It's a small spider from 2 to 4 mm.
This is the Ero aphana or the Ero tuberculata. I saw the ero after I had photographed an Enoplognatha nest. Mother Enoplognatha guarded the nest but did not see the ero. She wasn't attacked by the ero.
The eggs of an ero are laid in a cocoon surrounded with a wiry silk and is hanging by a silken thread. 
More information.     
Photos 24-9-2012. Photo cocoon 21-7-2011.    

I want to thank everyone, who has helped me (waarneming.nl) to identify. In particular, Jacomijn Prinsen, Willem Boomkens, Frits Broekhuis, Joost Vogels and Pierre Oger. 

Harvestmen, order Opiliones formely Phalangida class Arachnida.
Daddy-long-legs, but this name is also used in conjunction with crane flies and cellar spiders in the family Pholcidae.

In 2010 I will take more photos of harvestmen. They look like spiders.
Features: The two main body sections are grown together to an oval shaped body (difference with the spiders)  They also have no venom or silk glands. Usually they have a single pair of eyes. The second pair legs is the longest and works as antennae or sense organs.
Most species are maturing in late summer - hence their common name.
Most harvestmen are active during the night.
Harvestmen catch small insects and other small species, but they also eat the decays of any dead animal and all kind of plant material and fungi.
A leg (or legs) easily becomes detached from the body.  This is a  means of protection from predators. When detached, a leg will continue to twitch for some time. (sometimes even up to an hour)
They lay eggs in moist soil, under rocks or logs.

Red Harvestman, Opilio canestrinii  male Red Harvestman, Opilio canestrinii  male

Red Harvestman, Opilio canestrinii  male. Photos 23-10-2009.

Female Red Harvestman  Female Red Harvestman

Red Harvestman, Opilio canestrinii  female in the holly. Photos 13-12-2009.

Striking is the difference in colour of the male between the orange body and the dark legs. (but yellow  "knees")
The legs of Opilio parietinus and Opilio saxatilis are less dark. They look like the Opilio canestrinii. 
The Opilio canestrinii has invated Europ fom the Apennines. Since 1993 it is found in the Netherlands. In England in 1999.  It lives on the walls. Other species at walls Opilio parietinus and Opilio saxatilis are wiped out by the Opilio canestrinii. Most likely the eggs and harvestmen are imported by transporting plants.
Body length males: 4 - 6 mm. Females: 5 - 8 mm. The female is yellowish brown to ocher. The legs has light and dark rings. The eggs are laid in autumn.
Adults June - December.
  Thanks Arp Kruithof for your help.

Spring Harvestman  (Rilaena triangularis) Paroligolophus agrestis
Spring Harvestman (Rilaena triangularis). Spring Harvestman (Rilaena triangularis).
The spring harvestman is grown mid-April. And is therefore the first harvestman you see in the spring. April to June.  This harvestman don't overwinter as an egg, but as a nymph. (like the in the Netherlands rare Platybunus pinetorum) 
A young spring harvestman. Photo 22-11-2012.                                              
Paroligolophus agrestis.

A harvestman with fairly short legs. The adult overwinters.
Photo 13-9-2010. 

Dicranopalpus ramosus Phalangium opilio
Dicranopalpus ramosus.

A harvestman with very long legs (up to 5 cm).  In resting position the legs are stretched to the sides. It is also distinguished by the forked pedipalps.
Native to Morocco. (Discovered in 1909) In the Netherlands  it is discovered in 1992. Now it is a general harvestman. August to November. Photo 29-9-2010.

Phalangium opilio.

A harvestman which can be recognized by the elongated spot on the back with two narrows. (Looks like Mitopus morio). The underside is light. Length 6 to 9 mm. May to November.
Native to Europe, Asia. But now they live also in North America and North Africa. 
Photo 25-9-2010.

Nemastoma lugubre.

In the Nederlands:  N. dentigerum, N. lugubre en N. bimaculatum. N. bimaculatum is very similar to N. lugubre but is more rare.  
It is a dull black harvestman with two striking silvery white spots.
Length body: Male: 1,6 - 2,7 mm, female: 2,1 - 2,7 mm. 
The whole year. 

Nemastoma lugubre Photos 19-3-2011.

Information about spiders: www.nicksspider,   Spiders of North-West Europ and  Eurospider.com
A new Belgium spider site  Les araignées de Belgique et de France of Pierre Oger. Many details!
A French site    Balades chez les Araibnées
A beautiful site with much information about animals:  
The Garden Safari
Some great spider photos - http://www.spiderrule.com/spiderphotos.htm 


 Nederlands / Dutch                                                                   

English!!  Garden, plants:    Animals, insects in the garden:               Dutch dunes, countries:  
garden
spring
spring'07
summer
summerflowers
weeds
autumn
winter
houseplants
euphorbia
links
 
animals/links
spiders
butterflies
dragonflies
flies
hoverflies/1
hoverflies/2
wasps/bees
beetles
bugs
Insects other
 
dunes
Australia
England1        2 
France1          2
Ireland
Italy
Scotland
Spain
Czechia
Croatia
 
 

W3Counter Web Stats

 

GoogleYou can translate this site in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.