aphids (aphidiae) in the garden.


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Aphids (Aphidiae) in the garden.


Family Aphids-Aphidiae.

Just like bugs and cicadas, aphids have a sucking mouthparts known as a rostrum. They can be recognized by the cornicles (siphunculi). Two abdominal tubes on the end of the dorsal surface. Different in shape and size, sometimes absent.
They have a kind of tail, the cauda.

Adult aphids can be both winged and wingless. Aphids are viviparous (producing living young instead of eggs). The majority of the year there are only females. giving birth to young without males (asexual reproduction - parthenogenetic). Only in autumn there are males and there is a phase of sexual reproduction. The females lay eggs (oviparous), which overwinter (winter eggs), adult female which has developed from an overwintering fertilized egg, are the the fundatrices. They are parthenogenetic again. This is called cyclic parthenogenetic.
There are also fully parthenogenetic species and species with both forms.
Most aphids live on one or a few host plant species. They also often have a host alternation. These aphids overwinter on a different plant species.
In the autumn and spring there is a winged generation (alates) that flies to the host. There they are often wingless (apterae).
Aphids suck juice from the plants. The sugars are then separated as honeydew.
With many aphid species, the honeydew is milked by ants.
Aphids, especially in galls, can form a wax layer as protection.
The host, antenna shape, siphunculi and cauda are important for determination.

There are approximately 600 species in the Netherlands.
I didn't know much about aphids, but they are very interesting.
They are at the bottom of the food chain. Without aphids, for example, no ladybugs. Larvae of some beautiful hoverflies also feed on aphids.
Healthy plants do survive, so my aphids are allowed to stay in the garden. Sometimes they are annoying when, for example, the car sticks because of the aphids in the maple.
For a grower of roses, for example, it is of course a different story.

On this page there are only a few species with some information taken from Influentialpoints.com. Usually a short description of only the winged aphids (sometimes only of the winged aphids). Influentialpoints.com. gives a lot more information and photos. See resources at the bottom of the page.
If you are looking for a name of an aphid, you can enter the English or scientific name of the host plant on the website https://influentialpoints.com/Bits/search_us.htm.

Subfamily Aphidinae.

Tribe Aphidini.

Ivy aphid (Aphis hederae). Tribe Aphidini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†.. Ivy aphid (Aphis hederae). Tribe Aphidini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†  Ivy aphid (Aphis hederae). Tribe Aphidini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
Wingless adult aphids (1.4-2.5 mm) are dull black, dark greenish, dark brown or reddish brown. Males can also be winged. On young shoots and foliage of ivy (Hedera helix), sometimes on other plants from the ivy family. Photos 29-4-2019.
Holly aphid (Aphis ilicis). Tribe Aphidini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  .. Holly aphid (Aphis ilicis). Tribe Aphidini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).    Holly aphid
Aphis verbasci. Tribe Aphidini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae)... Aphis verbasci. Tribe Aphidini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  Aphis verbasci. Tribe Aphidini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
Wingless adult aphids (1.7-2.5 mm) are bright  pale green to yellowish and with a bit powdery wax. Under leaves of mullein (Verbascum), butterfly-bush (Buddleja) (in our garden) and hellebore (Scrophularia). Photos 2-6-2019.

Tribe Macrosiphini.

Red currant aphid (Cryptomyzus ribis). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†.. Red currant aphid (Cryptomyzus ribis). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†  Red currant aphid (Cryptomyzus ribis). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
It host alternates from Ribes especially red currant (Ribes rubrum) to woundworts (Stachys), sometimes on other plants from the mint family (Labiatae or Lamiaceae). On the Ribes, they live in hollows on the underside of leaves formed by brown-green or purplish-red blisters on the upperside.
Cryptomyzus species live on Ribes and move every season to plants of the mint family, staying on Ribes or staying plants of the mint family. Photos 3-8-2019, 11-5-2019.
Roze appelluis (Dysaphis plantaginea). Tribus Macrosiphini. Onderfamilie Aphidinae. Familie Bladluizen (Aphididae). .. Roze appelluis (Dysaphis plantaginea). Tribus Macrosiphini. Onderfamilie Aphidinae. Familie Bladluizen (Aphididae). . Roze appelluis (Dysaphis plantaginea). Tribus Macrosiphini. Onderfamilie Aphidinae. Familie Bladluizen (Aphididae).   Rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
It host alternates from apple (Malus) to plantain (Plantago). They cause longitudinal leaf curling of apple. Unwinged adult aphids (2.1-2.6 mm) on apple are dull pink to purplish grey. Photos 4-6-2019, 7-5-2019.
Roos-grasluis (Metopolophium dirhodum). Tribus Macrosiphini. Onderfamilie Aphidinae. Familie Bladluizen (Aphididae). .. Roos-grasluis (Metopolophium dirhodum). Tribus Macrosiphini. Onderfamilie Aphidinae. Familie Bladluizen (Aphididae).   Roos-grasluis (Metopolophium dirhodum). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
Wingless adult aphids (1.6-2.9 mm) are green or yellowish green with a brighter green center line. Pale antenna segments with dark top. They are on wild and cultivated Rosa. In June they go to numerous species of grasses (Poaceae) and cyper grasses family. Photos 13-4-2019.
Rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosae). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††.. Rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosae). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††  Rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosae). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  
Wingless adult aphids (1.7-4.2 mm) are green or pink to red-brown. On young growth of roses, then to plants mainly from the teasel family. Photos 9-5-2019.
Woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae)... Woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).Woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). Woolly beech aphid  (Phyllaphis fagi). Tribe Macrosiphini. Subfamily Aphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
Elongated oval wngless adult aphids (2.0-3.2 mm) are pale yellowish green, covered with woolly wax. Beech (Fagus). At the underside of mainly young leaves. Photos 4-6-2019.


Subfamily Calaphidinae.

Tribe Calaphidini.

Euceraphis betulae / Euceraphis punctipennis. Tribe Calaphidini. Onderfamilie Calaphidinae. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††  Euceraphis betulae / Euceraphis punctipennis. Tribe Calaphidini. Onderfamilie Calaphidinae. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  
silver birch aphid - Euceraphis betulae (3.0-4.2 mm) especially on silver birch (Betula pendula). Downy birch aphid - Euceraphis punctipennis (3.0-4.2 mm) especially on downy birch (Betula pubescens). This aphid is on rough birch. So it's probably Euceraphis betulae. Winged pale green aphids with bluish-white wax. Photo 23-6-2019.

Tribe Panaphidini 

Black-tailed bamboo aphid (Takecallis arundicolens). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††.. Black-tailed bamboo aphid (Takecallis arundicolens). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††Black-tailed bamboo aphid (Takecallis arundicolens). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†† Black-tailed bamboo aphid (Takecallis arundicolens). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  
The adult (always) winged aphid is pale yellow or greyish yellow with a black spot on the cauda. The pale or dark yellow nymph without this black spot. Whitish antenna with dark rings. Pale legs with dark tarsi. Length 1.8-2.8 mm. Host plants: Bamboo leaves. With us on bamboo with broad leaves.
Takecallis species are native to Southeast Asia and live on bamboo. Takecallis arundicolens, Takecallis arundinariae and Takecallis taiwanus have been introduced in the Netherlands. Photos 26-12-2016, 22-2-2016.
Black-spotted bamboo aphid (Takecallis arundinariae). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††..  Black-spotted bamboo aphid (Takecallis arundinariae). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††Black-spotted bamboo aphid (Takecallis arundinariae). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††  Black-spotted bamboo aphid (Takecallis arundinariae). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  
The adult (always) winged aphid is pale yellow or greyish yellow and has dark length stripes (variable) on the thorax and on the abdomen on each tergiet pair of elongated black spots. The pale or dark yellow nymph without this pattern. White antenna with dark rings. Pale legs with dark tarsi. Length 1.7-2.4 mm.
At rest they are stretched out on the leaf grain in our garden and aren't striking. Bamboo leaves.  With us on bamboo with narrow leaves. Photos 9-6-2019.
Common oak aphid (Tuberculatus annulatus). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae)...  Common oak aphid (Tuberculatus annulatus). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).Common oak aphid (Tuberculatus annulatus). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).. Common oak aphid (Tuberculatus annulatus). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).. Common oak aphid (Tuberculatus annulatus). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  Common oak aphid (Tuberculatus annulatus). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Calaphidinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).

Tuberculatus annulatus si very similar to Tuberculatus neglectus.
Difference according to Influentialpoints.com: Tuberculatus annulatus: Abdominal tergites I-III each have a pair of spinal processes (see second picture below) (cf. Tuberculatus borealis which has a pair of spinal processes on each of tergites I-IV). The spinal processes on tergite III may be dusky pigmented and are particularly large (cf. Tuberculatus neglectus which has unpigmented spinal projections on abdominal segment I-III of similar size).

 

Subfamily Chaitophorinae.

Tribe Chaitophorini. 

Sycamore periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus acericola). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††.. Sycamore periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus acericola). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††Sycamore periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus acericola). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).††  Sycamore periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus acericola). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  
Adult wingless aphids (2.4-3.5 mm) are pale green, yellowish green with darker green spots. On the underside of leaves, leaf stalks and young shoots of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). Photos 5-5-2019, 21-5-2019.
Californian Maple aphid (Periphyllus californiensis). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†.. Californian Maple aphid (Periphyllus californiensis). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†Californian Maple aphid (Periphyllus californiensis). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†  Californian Maple aphid (Periphyllus californiensis). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
Unwinged adult aphids (2.3-3.5 mm) are dark olive green to reddish. The head is dark. On the underside of leaves of Asian ornamental maple trees, sometimes on other maple trees. Photos 18-4-2019.
Common periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus testudinaceus). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae)... Common periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus testudinaceus). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).Common periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus testudinaceus). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).. Common periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus testudinaceus). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).  Common periphyllus aphid (Periphyllus testudinaceus). Tribe Chaitophorini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
Unwinged adult aphids (2.0-3.7 mm) are green to dark brown or blackish. On young shoots, leaves of  field maple (Acer campestre), but also on other maple species. Photos 8-4-2019, 9-4-2019.
Tinocallis takachihoensis. Tribus Panaphidini. Onderfamilie Calaphidinae. Familie Bladluizen (Aphididae). .. Tinocallis takachihoensis. Tribus Panaphidini. Onderfamilie Calaphidinae. Familie Bladluizen (Aphididae).   Japanese elm aphid (Tinocallis takachihoensis). Tribe Panaphidini. Subfamily Chaitophorinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).
Winged adult aphids (1.8-2.0 mm) are light yellow-green with a glossy black head and thorax. Black along the wing veins. On the underside of leaves of elm (Ulmus). Photos 27-5-2019.

 

Subfamily Eriosomatinae.    

Elm-currant aphid (Eriosoma ulmi). Tribe Eriosomatini. Subfamily Eriosomatinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†.. Elm-currant aphid (Eriosoma ulmi). Tribe Eriosomatini. Subfamily Eriosomatinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae).†  Elm-currant aphid (Eriosoma ulmi). Tribe Eriosomatini. Subfamily Eriosomatinae. Family Aphids (Aphididae). 
Galls on are formed by downward curling, turning and blistering of one side edge of an elm leaf, the distorted part turning yellowish or whitish green. There were only a few galls in the garden. Of those, both leaf edges were curled. That is why there is some doubt with Eriosoma patchiae. However, it is rare in the Netherlands and has fewer pale leaf galls.
Winged adults leave the galls and migrate to the root collar of currant bushes. There they produce larvae that feed on thin roots under a layer of wax. The females laying winter eggs return to elms in September and October. Photos 24-5-2019.

 

I want to thank Henk Soepenberg, Marco de Haas (on Waarneming), Willem Ellis (website Leafminers and plant galls of Europe) and Bob Dransfield (website Influential points) for their help in determining.

Aphids on Waarneming (Dutch): Waarneming.nl/taxa/10808   English site about aphids: Influentialpoints.com  
(Lots of information, photos)
English site about aphids: Aphidsonworldsplants   Leafminers and plant galls of Europe:  Bladmineerders.nl              

 

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