gnats, nematocera

 

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Gnats, mosquitoes, long-horned flies, midges, .. (Nematocera)

 

Diptera - two-winged. In this order belong all flies (Brachycera) and gnats, mosquitoes, crane flies, black flies, midges, long-horned flies (Nematocera). In Dutch only two names Brachycera = vlieg and Nematocera = mug. Much easier  :-) 

Gnats etc. look like slender flies. Although some species such as some crane flies can be mistaken for wasps and moth flies for small moths. A difference with flies are the antennae. The antennae of gnats have many segments. The antennae of flies have always three segments. 
All gnats have a snout. Most species don't bite (stabbing). The best known biting species belong to the family mosquitoes (Culicidae).

Crane flies (Tipulidae)      

Crane flies (tipilidae). They have  a long and thin body and very long, thin legs. Subfamilies are Tipulinae, Cylindrotominae and Limoniinae. They live in the same way.  The adult crane flies don’t eat or  eat only a little nectar. They live only to mate and live not long. 
The female has a pointed tip which she uses to push her eggs into the soil. The larvae feed on the roots of plants. They can bee a pest  because the damage to lawns.

Website about Craneflies: Catalogue of the craneflies of the world of Pjotr Oosterbroek 

 

Ctenophora pectinicornis Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). female.. Ctenophora pectinicornis Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). female Female. Ctenophora pectinicornis Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). male Male.  Ctenophora pectinicornis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae).
Length about 4 cm.
This is a female. The female abdomen is pointed for laying eggs into the ground. Photos 16-6-2011, 7-6-2009.         
Tipula flavolineata. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female. .. Tipula flavolineata. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.  Tipula flavolineata. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.
Tipula flavolineata has a light centerline over the abdomen. Wing length 18-25 mm. May-September. Larvae in rotting wood. Photos 18-5-2017.
       
Tipula helvola. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male. .. Tipula helvola. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male. . Tipula helvola. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male. . Tipula helvola. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male.   Tipula helvola. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male. 
Tipula helvola is a relatively small species (wing length 12-16 mm), which is rare in the Netherlands. The first antenna segments are brown. The other antenna segments are at the bottom dark. On the light brown or brownish gray thorax is in the middle a thin brown stripe. 
In and near deciduous forest. Photos 2-7-2016.
        
Tipula lateralis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female... Tipula lateralis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female. . Tipula lateralis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.   Tipula lateralis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.
Tipula lateralis is distinguished by the light stripe that runs down the middle of the abdomen. On the chest is a black line, that starts just behind the eyes. It also has strikingly patterned wings. It is very similar to the (in the Netherlands rare) Tipula couckei. The larvae feed on decaying plants on the bottom of the ponds or streams. The length is about 13 mm for males and 16 mm for females.
March - October. Palaearctic. Photos 9-9-2015.
        
Tipula luna. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female... Tipula luna. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.. Tipula luna. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.. Tipula luna. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female. Tipula luna. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.
A crane fly with a gray to blue-gray abdomen with short dark narrow midline on the middle segments (segments 3 sometimes 2 to 6) and with a dark sidebar. The side edges of the abdomen are tan to white. The thighs are largely dark or only at the top. The ovipositor is shiny light brown with a dark basal half.
Palaearctic. Foto's 6-5-2017.  
         
Tipula lunata. Familie Langpoten (Tipulidae). Mannetje.   Tipula lunata. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male.
I found it in a spider web. A striking orange colored crane fly. Tipula lunata is similar to Tipula cava. 
Palaearctic. Photo's 10-5-2011.  
        
Tipula paludosa.  Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). female.. Tipula paludosa.  Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). female 

Tipula paludosa.  Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.
This species has 14 segments of the antenna. De Tipula oleracea is very similar, but has 13 segments. In T.paludosa female abdomen is longer than the wings T. oleracea (not shown in this picture). The wings are not folded in rest. 
April - October, but most common in autumn.    
Length: 12-17 mm.   Photos 15-9-2012.   

   Tipula paludosa.  Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). female Photo 13-9-2008.         

Tipula rufina. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). female.. Tipula rufina. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). female. Tipula rufina. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). female Tipula rufina. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female
  A Tipula with spotted wings and a black stripe on the side of the thorax. The wings are folded on the body. April - November.
Photos 14-9-2012.          
Tipula vittata. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female... Tipula vittata. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female. Tipula vittata. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.
The Tipula vitata has a brownish-gray abdomen with at the side dark spots.
The patterned wings, which are unfolded at rest, have light and dark spots. Unfortunately not very well visible in this picture. It looks like the Tipula maxima, but the pattern on the wings is different.
The larvae live in boggy areas. In our garden maybe near the pond. April - June. Photos 21-5-2013.  
         
Nephrotoma cornicina. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female... Nephrotoma cornicina. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.  Nephrotoma cornicina. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Female.
It was very difficult to find the right name. I've got much help on the Dutch forum (Thanks Arp, James en Henk)
forum Waarneming
And from Pjotr Oosterbroek. Thanks! Photos 22-7-2014. 
        
Nephrotoma flavipalpis Family Crane flies (Tipulidae) female Female. Nephrotoma flavipalpis Family Crane flies (Tipulidae) female. Nephrotoma flavipalpis Family Crane flies (Tipulidae) female  Male. Nephrotoma flavipalpis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). 
It's a crane fly with long slender legs. Black with yellow. The wings are folded on the body. Sometimes the wings are not folded. Than you can see how beautiful it is.
Palearctic area. Photo 15-7-2012, 2-10-2011.
         
Nephrotoma pratensis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male.. Nephrotoma pratensis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male. Nephrotoma pratensis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Male Male. Nephrotoma pratensis. Female. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae).  Female. Nephrotoma pratensis. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). 
De thorax is dark grey, black with yellow. On the side of the abdomen are yellow spots. Photos 2-6-2013, 26-5-2014.
          
Nephrotoma quadrifaria. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). .. Nephrotoma quadrifaria. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). . Nephrotoma quadrifaria. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). . Nephrotoma quadrifaria. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae).  Female.  Nephrotoma quadrifaria. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). 
The drawing of the thorax is similar to that of the Nephrotoma flavipalpis. The abdomen are also dark with yellow spots, but it's not the same pattern. 
Europe, Iran.
Photos 15-7-2013, 18-7-2013.          
Nephrotoma submaculosa. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). .. Nephrotoma submaculosa. Female. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae).  Female. Nephrotoma submaculosa. Male. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae).  Male.  Nephrotoma submaculosa. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). Photos taken in the dunes about 4 km from our house. Photos 17-5-2017.                  
Nephrotoma scurra. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). .. Nephrotoma scurra. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). . Nephrotoma scurra. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae). . Nephrotoma scurra. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae).  Nephrotoma scurra. Family Crane flies (Tipulidae).  Female. Photos 1-1-2015.         
Larva of a tipula. I don't know the species. .. Larva of a tipula. I don't know the species.   Larva of a tipula. I don't know the species.   
Tipulidae larvae can be identified by the 6 lobes on the abdomen at the posterior end. Limoniidae larvae have fewer lobes.
Photo 9-4-2011.     


Other gnats (Nematocera)                                            

Anisopodidae 

Window Gnat  Sylvicola spec. Family Anisopodidae   Window Gnat  Sylvicola spec. Family Anisopodidae. 
Another long legged fly. It  is related to the family Chironomidae (Non-Biting Gnats or Midge Flies). No fear, it is a non-biting gnat.
I don't know wich species. A common window gnat is Sylvicola fenestralis. In the Netherlands are six species.
They have 16 segments of the antenna. They have got their name because they are attracted to light especially  illuminated windows.  
Their colour also can be reddish. This photo is from March 2009.
The larvae lives of vegetable waste.
German: Fenstermücken.         


Bibionidae
St Mark's flies are no flies. You can see them in the early spring (often in groups). The males have larger bulbous eyes than the females.
The larvae feed on decaying organic matter and on the roots of grasses.  

St Mark's fly (Bibio marci). Male. Family Bibionidae... St Mark's fly (Bibio marci). Male. Family Bibionidae. Male. St Mark's fly (Bibio marci). Female. Family Bibionidae. Female.  St Mark's fly (Bibio marci). Family Bibionidae.
Leading edge of wing darkened, wing stigma clear, rest of the wing milky white.
Length about 10 mm. April - May. Photos 25-4-2017, 26-4-2017, 17-4-2011. Geman: Märzfliege, Märzhaarmücke, Markusfliege oder Markushaarmücke French: Mouche de la Saint-Marc.         
Bibio Johannis. male. Family Bibionidae... Bibio Johannis. male. Family Bibionidae.. Bibio Johannis. male. Family Bibionidae. Bibio Johannis. male. Family Bibionidae.
Features: Wing stigma black. Tarsus and shins light brown. Antennae of normal length, with 9 limbs. Metatarsus slightly thickened, about 3 times as long as wide.
Similar species are: bibio clavipes and bibio lanigerus.
Photo 2-4-2012.         
Fever Fly (Dilophus febrilis). Family Bibionidae... Fever Fly (Dilophus febrilis). Family Bibionidae.  Fever Fly (Dilophus febrilis). Family Bibionidae.
The fever fly looks like the Bibio marci, but is smaller and not so hairy. The female has tinted wings. Only the tip is clear. The wings of the male are clear. 
Length 3.5 mm - 8 mm. April to September.
Photos 29-8-2012.        
The larvae Bibionidae (Bibio or Dilophus: detail of anal opening is necessary to know the species.)   The larvae Bibionidae (Bibio or Dilophus: detail of anal opening is necessary to know the species.) 
The larvae resemble leatherjackets with a black head. These larvae I found in October 2008. Very late in the year for these species.
A difference with the leatherjackets are fleshy outgrowths of the skin and the entirely chitinised, external head.
They have no legs.
Photo: 27-10-2008.        
The larvae Bibionidae .. The larvae Bibionidae . The larvae Bibionidae   The larvae Bibionidae
After I had taken the photo above, I have seen them often in large numbers in the garden on humus-rich places. After one day they disappeared. The larvae I found three years later, when I swept the street, looked different. Probably a different species. Photos 27-09-2011.         


Gall midges, gall gnats (Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyidae)
Small midge. Length 0.5 - 3mm. Sometimes larger. They have hairy wings with few veins. There are three subfamilies: Lestrmiinae, Porricondylinae and Cecidomiina. Some larvae of the subfamily Cecidomiina feed on plant tissue, causing gallnuts (like gall wasps). They can be harmful. Other larvae live in mushrooms, dead wood or are predators.

Gall midge spec, gall gnat spec. Family Gall midges, gall gnats (Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyidae). ..  Gall midge spec, gall gnat spec. Family Gall midges, gall gnats (Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyidae).   Gall midge spec, gall gnat spec. Family Gall midges, gall gnats (Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyidae). 
On these pictures is the gall midge on a flower of a crocus. About 2-3 mm. Photos 19-3-2014. 
       
Gall midge spec, gall gnat spec. Family Gall midges, gall gnats (Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyidae). .. Gall midge spec, gall gnat spec. Family Gall midges, gall gnats (Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyidae).   Gall midge spec, gall gnat spec. Family Gall midges, gall gnats (Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyidae). 
A large gall midge. The lower part of the legs is white. The abdomen is orange. Length about 4-5 mm I think. I can't find a name. If you know the name....pleas email me. Photos 5-5-2014. 
         


Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae).
In the United States and Canada: No-see-ums, midgies, punkies. Small biting midges from 1 to 4 mm.

Biting midge spec. Family biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). Male.. Biting midge spec. Family biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). Male  Biting midge spec. Family biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). Male
Usually they are not to identify from photographs. The female midge can stabbing to suck blood. These are the midges of the genera Leptoconops, Culicoides, Forcipomyia. They often feed on nectar and honeydew.
In rest they have a bent posture as a Chironomid. However, they are broader. The antennae of the males are more or less hairy.
The larvae live in moist conditions, such as puddles, damp earth, rotting material, cow dung etc.  Photos 9-4-2014. This biting midge was about 2 mm.
       
Sphaeromias spec. Tribe Sphaeromiini. Subfamilly Ceratopogoninae. Family biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). Female.  

Sphaeromias spec. Tribe Sphaeromiini. Subfamilly Ceratopogoninae. Family biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). Female.
In the Netherlands there are the two species Sphaeromias fasciatus and Sphaeromias pictus. A third species Sphaeromias miricornis is also seen as a pale variety of Sphaeromias pictus. The differences are small (inter alia in the hairs on the scutellum). See this
Polish information

Females feed on small insects. The males do not eat.
The larvae live in water. Photos 9-4-2014. About 4 mm.
        


Chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae).

Chironomid, non-biting midge. Family chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Female Female.  Chironomid, non-biting midge. Family chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Female.
A Chironomid don't bite. At rest the wings as they have a roof like folded.  They are difficult to identify. In the Netherlands there are more than 400 species. The length of the different species varies from 1 to 10 mm. 
The larva resembles a red worm and is eaten by fish. The larvae of most species live in the mud and water between underwater plants.
This Chironomid was about one cm. It's a female, for males have plumose antennae. Photos 29-8-2012, 9-4-2014. 
         
Chironomid, non-biting midge. Family chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Male... Chironomid, non-biting midge. Family chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Male. Male. Chironomid, non-biting midge. Family chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Female. Chironomid, non-biting midge. Family chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Female. Female. Chironomid, non-biting midge. Family chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Male.
A male and female together behind our window. Probably the same species. They were about 4 mm.
Photos 18-3-2013.        


Culicidae
In this family females feed on mammals (humans, cattle) blood. They have slender legs and wings. The antenna has 15 segments. The antennae of males are long and hairy. The larvae are found in standing water. They feed on algae etc. Males typically feed on nectar and plant juices. The females suck blood. The proteins in the blood are used to develop the eggs.

Maybe: Banded mosquito, Culiseta annulata mosquito (Culiseta annulata, syn. Theobaldia annulata) Female.  Family Culicidae... Maybe: Banded mosquito, Culiseta annulata mosquito (Culiseta annulata, syn. Theobaldia annulata) Female.  Family Culicidae. Female. Maybe: Banded mosquito, Culiseta annulata mosquito (Culiseta annulata, syn. Theobaldia annulata) Male.  Family Culicidae.. Maybe: Banded mosquito, Culiseta annulata mosquito (Culiseta annulata, syn. Theobaldia annulata) Male.  Family Culicidae. Male.  
Maybe: Banded mosquito, Culiseta annulata mosquito
(Culiseta annulata, syn. Theobaldia annulata) Female.  Family Culicidae.
I have read, that Culiseta subochrea is very similar. And there are in the Netherlands more species. Namely: C. alaskaensis, C. fumipennis, C. morsitans, C. ochtroptera. A large mosquito with white rings on the legs. This mosquito can hibernate in buildings. Males can be recognized by the long hairy antennae. See the pictures.
The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) looks also like the Culiseta. This mosquito is native to Asia but has invaded southern European countries. Aedes albopictus is an important vector for the transmission of viral pathogens. Also with white rings but darker.
Culiseta annulata is less dangerous, but people are stabbing by this mosquito.
Photos 2-10-2011, 17-10-2011  German: Culiseta annulata Stechmücke         
Maybe Common mosquito (Culex pipiens) Female. Family Culicidae.  Maybe Common mosquito (Culex pipiens) Female. Family Culicidae.
I am not sure. The wing veins are not visible in this picture. The females suck blood mainly of birds. People are less stung by this mosquito. These mosquitoes can overwinter in buildings.
Photo 1-10-2011.        


Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae
The Limoniidae look like small crane flies, Tipulidae. Length 2 - 11 mm, there are some larger species. They are a non-biting gnats. In the Netherlands there are known 144 species. 

Cheilotrichia cinerascens. Probably! Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. .. Cheilotrichia cinerascens. Probably! Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. .. Cheilotrichia cinerascens. Probably! Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. . Cheilotrichia cinerascens. Probably! Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae.   Cheilotrichia cinerascens. Probably! Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. 
The species can be recognized by the wing veins. Deze mug staat
here  (figure 13). Joris Menten thanks for helping me. Photos 24-11-2012.         
Symplecta hybrida. Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. .. Symplecta hybrida. Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. . Symplecta hybrida. Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae.   Symplecta hybrida. Subfamily Chioneinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. 
Pale grey-brown with three dark stripes lengthwise on the thorax. The wings have dark cross veins. Length of this gnat was about 7 mm.
May - October. Larvae in wet sand near water, they feed most likely with organic material. Europe, Asia, North Africa, North America. Photos 28-9-2015.
        
Austrolimnophila ochracea. Female. Subfamily Limnophilinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. .. Austrolimnophila ochracea. Female. Subfamily Limnophilinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. . Austrolimnophila ochracea. Female. Wing.Subfamily Limnophilinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae.   Austrolimnophila ochracea. Subfamily Limnophilinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. 
A yellow-brown limonid cranefly. The wings have a light grey spot.
Austrolimnophila ochracea, is common in dry and humid forests. Length was about 9 mm.
Europe to Turkey. Photos 16-6-2018.
        
Short-palped cranefly, Limonia nubeculosa. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. .. Short-palped cranefly, Limonia nubeculosa. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. . Short-palped cranefly, Limonia nubeculosa. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae.   Short-palped cranefly, Limonia nubeculosa. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. 
The long light brown legs have on the thighs (femur) three dark rings. (The limonia in the picture has lost a leg) The wings have a dark pattern on the front edge. It has a stripy thorax.
Length 9 - 11 mm. April - November.
  Palearctic en Nearctic.
The larvae feed on rotting wood.
Photos 29-11-2012.        
Phylidorea ferruginea. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. .. Phylidorea ferruginea. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. . Phylidorea ferruginea. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae.   Phylidorea ferruginea. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. 
Shiny brown. Yellow brown legs with dark knees.  Length about 9 mm. 
May - October. Palearctic.
Photos 19-4-2013, 26-6-2013.        
Rhipidia Rhipidia maculata. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. .. Rhipidia maculata. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae.  Rhipidia maculata. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae. 
The wings have a striking pattern. It is somewhat similar to that of the Limonia nubeculosa, but the legs are brown grey without a pattern of rings.
Length of these Rhipidia was approximately 7 mm. May - October. Larvae in rotting wood.

Rhipidia maculata. Subfamily Limoniinae. Family Limonid Craneflies, Limoniidae.   Male, good to see the comb-shaped (pectinate) antennas  Photos 25-11-2014.           

Fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae).
The family consists of many species, which are difficult to identify. A strongly humped thorax. Length of most types of 4 to 8 mm. But sometimes they are smaller or larger. Brown, yellow or black and not stabbing. The wings are often clear, but may also be tinted, and have a pattern. The larvae live in mushrooms, but also in mosses and in all kinds of moist materials.

Fungus gnat spec. Mycetophilidae spec. Family Fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae)... Fungus gnat spec. Mycetophilidae spec. Family Fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae).  Fungus gnat spec. Mycetophilidae spec. Family Fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae).
This year we have a lot of honey fungus in the garden. Therefore I see more fungus gnats than usual. This gnat is brown. The wings have a dark spot, the legs have prominent spines.
The length of the fungus gnat is about 5 mm.
Photos 6-12-2014.  German: Pilzmücken.          


Moth flies, drain flies 
(
Psychodidae) 
Small 3 to 5 mm. They look like small moths. They have hairy wings. The antenna consists of 13 segments.
The eggs are laid in murky water or moist organic material. The larvae and adults feed on fungi, bacteria, decaying matter. The adult moth fly likes nectar too. By this way of life we find them often in wet areas like toilets. They are not harmful, but can be annoying.
They are all over the world. 
German: Schmetterlingsmücken. 

Moth fly, drain fly spec. Family Psychodidae. .. Moth fly, drain fly spec. Family Psychodidae.   Moth fly, drain fly spec. Family Psychodidae. Photo 15-6-2011.  
An other species: Photo 23-3-2012.         
Moth fly, drain fly, Psychoda erminea. Family Psychodidae.     Moth fly, drain fly, Psychoda erminea. Family Psychodidae. Photo 18-11-2012.         


Ptychopteridae

Ptychoptera albimana. Female. Family:  Ptychopteridae, the Phantom Crane Flies. (No crane fly!!)    Ptychoptera albimana. Female. Family: Ptychopteridae, the Phantom Crane Flies. (No crane fly!!) 
Recognizable: The white  tarses on the backlegs. Similar in appearance to Crane flies. The larvae live in muddy shores, where they feed on algae.
The adults are found most often from late spring through to autumn in shaded, moist environs.
       
Ptychoptera contaminata. Female. Family: Ptychopteridae, the Phantom Crane Flies. (No crane fly!!) ..  Ptychoptera contaminata. Family: Ptychopteridae, the Phantom Crane Flies. (No crane fly!!)  Ptychoptera contaminata. Family: Ptychopteridae, the Phantom Crane Flies. (No crane fly!!)  Not in the garden but in the dunes about 4 km from our house.
Shiny black, with some yellow brown spots on the abdomen. On the wing there are some small spots and a large black spot. Length about 9 mm.
You can find it in damp places.  Europe.
Photos 13-5-2016, 6-5-2014.        


Sciaridae

Sciaridae spec. Family Sciaridae. ..  Sciaridae spec. Family Sciaridae.  Sciaridae spec. Family Sciaridae. 
I have in the garden a trunk of a dead apple tree. There often are different species of flies on it.  Two little gnats (5 mm) were walking on this trunk. 
There are many little gnats, belonging to the family Sciaridae   Usually they are not  to determine from a photo. Length  1 mm to 7 mm. They are a non-biting gnats. Larvae often live in decaying organic material.
The same month I found a much smaller species. About 2 mm. Photos 30-3-2009.
 
Much smaller species:  Sciaridae spec. Family Sciaridae.   Photo 31-3-2009         
Sciaridae spec. Family Sciaridae. .. Sciaridae spec. Family Sciaridae. . Sciaridae spec. Family Sciaridae.   Sciaridae spec. Family Sciaridae. 
These tiny gnats flew and walked everywhere in our house. After some searching, I saw that they were mainly at two plants in the bathroom. A moist warm place. When I put the plant in fresh soil the Sciaridaes were gone. (You should not immediately put the plants back, because eggs can be laid again.) They were about 2 mm. The species was not to determine. Meanwhile I have a better camera than in 2009 when I photographed the gnats above.
Photos 23-11-2013.        


Winter crane flies (Trichoceridae).
The family consists of two genera in Europe. Namely Dazosma (late summer - early autumn) and Trichocera (autumn - spring). Length 3 to 8 mm. Usually pale and not stabbing. The larvae live in moist soil, decaying material etc.

Winter crane fly spec. Trichoceridae spec. Family Winter crane flies (Trichoceridae)... Winter crane fly spec. Trichoceridae spec. Family Winter crane flies (Trichoceridae).. Winter crane fly spec. Trichoceridae spec. Family Winter crane flies (Trichoceridae).  Winter crane fly spec. Trichoceridae spec. Family Winter crane flies (Trichoceridae).
A charateristic of the family Trichoceridae is a short curved anal vein. The Diazosma has a slightly longer vein. But that is not visible in this picture. Given the time of year it's more likely that it is a Trichocera. They look like the Tipulidae, Tanyderidae, and Ptychopteridae, but unlike these families the family Trichoceridae has ocelli.
The length of this gnat is about 8 mm.
Photos 11-11-2014, 25-11-2014.  German: Wintermücken.           
Trichocera regelationis. Family Winter crane flies (Trichoceridae)... Trichocera regelationis. Family Winter crane flies (Trichoceridae).  Trichocera regelationis. Family Winter crane flies (Trichoceridae).
The length is about 7 mm. October - April. Photos 30-3-2015.  
        

 

 

A beautiful site with much information:   The Garden Safari   Informatie about flies:  www.diptera.info
A site that explains the construction of a fly (click on atlas): Anatomical Atlas of Flies      


I want to thank everyone, who has helped me (waarneming.nl) to identify. In particular, Joke van Erkelens, Robert Heemskerk, Mark van Veen, Gerard Pennard, Niels-Jan Dek and Han Endt. With the determination of Tachinidae I have had much help from Theo Zeegers and Chris Raper.  

 

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