sawflies, symphyta

 

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Sawflies, Symphyta

Wasps belong to the order Hymenoptera. The other insects, which belong to this order, are bees, bumblebees, ants and saw flies (Symphytae). 

 

Saw Flies (Symphyta) They are not flies. Sawflies are closely related to wasps. But they don't have the 'waist' of wasps. They make no nest and have no social organization. Sawfly larvae feed on leaves. The larvae  look similar to the caterpillars, but they have six or more pair of prolegs. Some larvae look like little slugs.


Argidae.

Large Rose Sawfly (Arge pagana).. Large Rose Sawfly (Arge pagana). Large Rose Sawfly (Arge pagana). Large Rose Sawfly (Arge pagana)  Large Rose Sawfly (Arge pagana). Subfamily Argina.  Family Argidae. 
The left is a Large Rose sawfly. But the other sawfly is an other species. Perhaps an Iris Sawfly. The Large Rose Sawfly saws a hole in a Rose (plant) and lays eggs. The larvae eat the rose. But usually there is not much damage,  because the larva has many natural enemies. 
Photos 1-6-2008, 2-6-2008.
In August I saw the larvae of the Large Rose Sawfly (Arge pagana) on the rose.

the larvae of the Large Rose Sawfly (Arge pagana)   the larvae of the Large Rose Sawfly (Arge pagana) Photos 17-8-2008.   
Bramble sawfly,  Arge cyanocrocea .. Bramble sawfly,  Arge cyanocrocea . Bramble sawfly,  Arge cyanocrocea Bramble sawfly (Arge cyanocrocea). Subfamily Argina.  Family Argidae. 
Arge cyanocrocea resembles the Arge pagana. But the difference is still clearly visible through the dark part of the wings.
The larvae feed on the leaves of blackberry, especially blackberries (Rubus fruticosus), raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis).
Length: 7, 8 mm. Europe, Asia Minor, Japan.
Photos 21-5-2011, 22-5-2011.   

Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae). 
A small family with a club-shaped thickening at the end of the antenna. German: Keulhornblattwespe.  French: Tenthrède du chèvrefeuille.

Honeysuckle Sawfly. (Abia fasciata, Zaraea fasciata). Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae). .. Honeysuckle Sawfly. (Abia fasciata, Zaraea fasciata). Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae). . Honeysuckle Sawfly. (Abia fasciata, Zaraea fasciata). Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae). . Honeysuckle Sawfly. (Abia fasciata, Zaraea fasciata). Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae). . Honeysuckle Sawfly. (Abia fasciata, Zaraea fasciata). Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae).   Honeysuckle Sawfly. (Abia fasciata, Zaraea fasciata). Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae). 
A Sawfly with a striking white band and a club-shaped end of the antennas. The larvae live in the honeysuckle.
They winter as a pupae in the ground. Adults appear in April.
In the Netherlands it is quite rare. Length 11 mm. Europe, North-West Africa, North and Central Asia. Photos 25-4-2010, 4-6-2010.
 
Abia lonicerae or Abia aenea. Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae).  Rare in the Netherlands! .. Abia lonicerae or Abia aenea. Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae).  Rare in the Netherlands! . Abia lonicerae or Abia aenea. Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae).  Rare in the Netherlands!  Abia lonicerae or Abia aenea. Family Clubhorned Sawflies (Cimbicidae).  Rare in the Netherlands! 
Abia Abia lonicerae and Abia aenea are very similar. The distinction is in the form of the 3rd segment of the antenna and a difference in punctures at the side of the thorax. (Thanks Jorgen). These Abias are beautiful sawflies with a coppery sheen. 
This Abia I found the window in the scullery. The larvae of both species live in the honeysuckle.
Length 11, 12 mm.
Photos 5-5-2013.   

Pamphiliidae.

Pamphilius spec.  Maybe inanitus. Family Pamphiliidae.... Pamphilius spec.  Maybe inanitus. Family Pamphiliidae.. Pamphilius spec.  Maybe inanitus. Family Pamphiliidae.  Pamphilius spec.  Maybe inanitus. Family Pamphiliidae.
I don't know the species. A beautiful saw fly (Photo 25-5-2009)
But...................
Op het forum "hymis"  I had the next question: I think Pamphilius spec. (25-5-2009 Bergen N.H. Holland) Is Pamphilius cf. marginatus possible?
The answer was: In Holland, P. marginatus is found mostly in Limburg, still very low outside this region. In marginatus yellow face, climb the inner orbit of the eyes and the abdomen is black with yellow spots over the sides.
For these reasons, I believe that this specimen is nearest to P. inanitus a species widespread in the Netherlands.
I must warn you, I'm no expert. Greetings,  José Luis Ruiz de la Cuesta.
  Thanks José  
Pamphilius hortorum. Family Pamphiliidae...  Pamphilius hortorum. Family Pamphiliidae.  Pamphilius hortorum. Family Pamphiliidae.
It looks like Pamphilius hortorum, but I'm not sure.
Differences with the upper Pamphilius: Including the dark colour of the first antenna segment, the all-black head and yellow spot on the thorax.
Photos 22-5-2013. 
Pamphilius sylvaticus. Family Pamphiliidae... Pamphilius sylvaticus. Family Pamphiliidae. Pamphilius sylvaticus. Family Pamphiliidae.
The abdomen is dark.
Photos 25-4-2011.  


Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
A large family, diveded in subfamilies.

Subfamily Allantinae. 

Curled Rose Sawfly  (Allantus cinctus) Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Curled Rose Sawfly  (Allantus cinctus) Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)..  Curled Rose Sawfly  (Allantus cinctus) Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Curled Rose Sawfly (Allantus cinctus). Subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
The light green larvae feed on the leaves of the strawberry. They can be found at the back of the leaves.
Two generations in a year. (spring and autumn) 
Length 6 - 9 mm. They hibernate as a pupa in the soil.
It looks like the Allantus cingulatus, but in Allantus cingulatus the jaws in part and the labrum are usually white.
The Dutch name (translated) is strawberry sawfly. The English name shows, the larvae also like the leaves of roses. Photos 19-6-2012.  
German: Rosensägewespe, Gebänderte Rosenblattwespe. 
Athalia spec. Subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)...Athalia spec. Subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Athalia spec. Subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). . Athalia spec. Subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). . Athalia spec. Subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Athalia spec. Subfamily Allantinae. Subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
A yellow, orange sawfly with a black head. The top of the thorax is also black. The edge of the wing is black.
First I thought of Athalia Rosae. But this sawfly has a partially orange thorax.
Length 6-8 mm. The sawfly Athalia looks like the sawflies of the family Arge, but the antenna of Arge species consists of 3 segments and the antenna of Athalia has more segments.
Photos 5-9-2010.        
A sawfly probably from the subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). .. A sawfly probably from the subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  A sawfly probably from the subfamily Allantinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). 
Probably, but not quite sure. A genus is not possible. But anyway I have placed this nice sawfly on this page.
Photos 9-4-2014.   

Subfamily Blennocampinae.

Eutomostethus ephippium. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Eutomostethus ephippium. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Eutomostethus ephippium. Subfamily Blennocampinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
A small black with red sawfly. Length 7 mm.
Photos 19-8-2013.  
Iris Sawfly (Rhadinoceraea micans). Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)...Iris Sawfly (Rhadinoceraea micans). Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Iris Sawfly (Rhadinoceraea micans). Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Iris Sawfly (Rhadinoceraea micans). Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Larvae Iris Sawfly (Rhadinoceraea micans). Subfamily Blennocampinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
There are other black similar species. Because they are found in the garden on the Yellow iris and because I had larvae of the iris sawfly,  I think this is the Iris Sawfly. The larvae can grow up to 5 cm long.
In June they move into the ground, spin under the ground a cocoon and pupate. In May the sawflies appear, which deposit the eggs.
Photos sawflies 15-5-2013. German: Irisblattwespe  French: Tenthrède des iris.           
Subfamily Blennocampinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Subfamily Blennocampinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
In general, the sawflies of  the subfamily Blennocampinae are short. robust and dark. This could be a Monophadnus. But it isn't certainly. In the Netherlands live Monophadnus Pallescens and Monophadnus Spinolae. These two species are only to determine by genital examination.
Monophadnus Pallescens: Larva feed on members of the buttercup family
. Length 5. 6 mm.  Generally short, robust, dark species. Photo 22-03-2012.  

Subfamily Dolerinae.

Dolerus spec... Dolerus spec.. Dolerus spec. Dolerus spec. Subfamily Dolerinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Photo 18-4-2010
There are many similar species. And there are not many specialists, you can consult.
This black and red dolerus looks like a Dolerus Germanicus. But they have brown knees. 
I have read, that Dolerus bajulus and Dolerus aericeps are also similar. This saw flies flew from one grass blade to another and were therefore difficult to photograph. You often see them in April and May.

 Dolerus spec. Dolerus spec. Photos 11-4-2010 Another Dolerus spec.

 

Subfamily Heterarthrinae.

Heterarthrus aceris. Subfamilie Heterarthrinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  .. Heterarthrus aceris. Subfamilie Heterarthrinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  . Heterarthrus aceris. Mine. Subfamilie Heterarthrinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  . Heterarthrus aceris. Larva. Subfamilie Heterarthrinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).    

Heterarthrus aceris. Subfamilie Heterarthrinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  
A black saw fly. The wings on the front pale. Legs at the 'knees' pale.
The larvae of this specie are making mines in the leaves of sycamore, sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The full grown larva spins itself a disc shaped cocoon within the mine. Finally it falls to the ground. There are no corridors in the mine.
I saw a female dropping eggs in the edge of leaves in April. In June, I saw the circle in the mine and I also found a larva. Photos 30-4-2017, 15-6-2017.

Other similar species:
Heterarthrus cuneifrons (Altenhofer & Zombori, 1987) on  Acer pseudoplatanus but makes the mine in the middle of the leaf. 
Heterarthrus wuestneii (Konow, 1905) makes the mine also frm the edge of the leaf. but on Acer campestre.
Not yet in the Netherlands:
Heterarthrus flavicollis (Gussakovskij, 1947): op Acer platanoides, Heterarthrus leucomela (Klug, 1818): on Acer campestre, Heterarthrus leucomela (Klug, 1818): on Acer pseudoplatanus.
Thanks to John Bouwmans and Ad Mol.
  

 

Subfamily Nematinae.

Hoplocampa fulvicornis. Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Hoplocampa fulvicornis. Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Hoplocampa fulvicornis. Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Hoplocampa fulvicornis. Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
Not quite sure, for there are other is similar relatives.
A small sawfly 4, 5 mm. The head, thorax and abdomen are black. The antennas consist of 9 segments and are light brown to dark brown in the males and the females. The legs are light yellow. The transparent wings have brown veins. April, May. 
The larvae can be found in eg plums, cherries, apricots. So they are harmful.
Europe. Photos 10-4-2011.     
Subfamily Nematinae Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Subfamily Nematinae Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Subfamily Nematinae Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).Subfamily Nematinae Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
The antennae are striking by the large segments. It's a difficult subfamily. The species and even the genus can not be determined. Nematus is a possibility. But it is not certain. (For example, Willow sawfly - Nematus salicis. There are many photos of the larvae, but none of the sawfly itself.)
Photos 3-11-2007.  
Nematus spec. Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Nematus spec. Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Nematus spec. Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
This time it is certain that it is a Nematus, but there are several similar species.
Photos 11-8-2015.   
Nematus lucidus.  Onderfamilie Nematinae. Familie Echte bladwespen (Tenthredinidae)... Nematus lucidus.  Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Nematus lucidus.  Subfamily Nematinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
Head, antennae, thorax, as well as the last segments of the abdomen are black. The shoulders, the front segments of the abdomen and the legs are red. The abdomen is torpedo-shaped.
The larvae feed on hawthorn and sometimes blackthorn.
8-11 mm. It looks like the larger Nematus lucidus. April-June. Photos 2-5-2015.
  


Subfamily
Selandriinae. 

Aneugmenus spec. Subfamily Selandriinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). .. Aneugmenus spec. Subfamily Selandriinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). .  Aneugmenus spec. Subfamily Selandriinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Aneugmenus spec. SubFamily Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). 
In the Netherlands there are three similar species: Aneugmenus coronatus, Aneugmenus padi, Aneugmenus temporalis. 
The sawfly of Aneugmenus padi lives on ferns. Of the other species is not known to me. Length 5, 6 mm. Photos 7-5-2014.
Selandria serva.  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Selandria serva.  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Selandria serva. Subfamily Selandriinae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
Selandria serva looks a lot like Athaliah and Arge species. A yellow, orange sawfly with a black head. The top of the thorax is also black. Its legs are entirely yellow, orange. 
The larvae feed on grasses. The eggs are deposited in the left picture.
Length 6 - 11 mm. May - October. Photos 26-6-2012.        


Subfamily Tenthredininae.

Aglaostigma aucupariae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  .. Aglaostigma aucupariae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  . Aglaostigma aucupariae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Aglaostigma aucupariae. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).    
The sawfly has has black abdomen with in the middle a broad red band. I found it on Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). Photos 14-5-2013.   
Macrophya ribis  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Macrophya ribis  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Macrophya ribis  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Macrophya ribis. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
There are many species Macrophya. The white bands around the legs are striking. But these bands have more species.
They are found near birches. But also near other deciduous trees such as Acer campestre (food plants for larvae). Photos 15 -7-2011.  
Macrophya albicincta/alboannulata  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Macrophya albicincta/alboannulata  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).   Macrophya albicincta/alboannulata. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
These two species are recognizable by the white pronotum. According to Jorgen Ravoet you can see the difference between the species if you have a good view of the posterior trochanters. Thanks Jorgen. Photos 23-4-2011. 
   
Pachyprotasis rapae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Pachyprotasis rapae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Pachyprotasis rapae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Pachyprotasis rapae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Macrophya albicincta/alboannulata. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
These two species are recognizable by the white pronotum. According to Jorgen Ravoet you can see the difference between the species if you have a good view of the posterior trochanters. Thanks Jorgen. Photos 23-4-2011.    
Rhogogaster spec.  Perhaps  a green sawfly (Rhogogaster viridis). Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Rhogogaster spec.  Perhaps  a green sawfly (Rhogogaster viridis). Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Rhogogaster spec.  Perhaps  a green sawfly (Rhogogaster viridis). Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
The larvae feed on the leaves of a wide range of plants and trees. The sawfly hunt on other insects and their larvae.
Photos 7-7-2012.  
Figwort Sawfly (Tenthredo scrophulariae)  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Figwort Sawfly (Tenthredo scrophulariae)  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Figwort Sawfly (Tenthredo scrophulariae). Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
Also this is a sawfly, although it looks like a social wasp. It has the same length (15 mm) of many wasps.  But there is no real waist.
The adult wasp hunts on other small insects. The larva eats plants of the
figwort family. The antenna is orange. Photos 17-7-2011. 
German: Braunwurzblattwespe.             

Figwort Sawfly (Tenthredo scrophulariae). Subfamily Tenthredininae. Nymph. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Larva 26-8-2015.    Figwort Sawfly (Tenthredo scrophulariae)  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Males and females  28-7-2011.

Tenthredo vespa  Familie Echte bladwespen (Tenthredinidae).. Tenthredo vespa  Familie Echte bladwespen (Tenthredinidae) . Tenthredo vespa  Familie Echte bladwespen (Tenthredinidae) Tenthredo vespa  Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Tenthredo vespa.  Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
Occasionally I see it with prey to the yarrow, where many flies are. See last picture.
About 13 mm. The black body with the bright yellow stripes looks like the body of social wasps (Vespidae). The wings have a dark spot. The first segment of the black antenna is orange
. Photos 10-7-2011, 3-7-2011.
Tenthredo campestris .. Tenthredo campestris  Tenthredo campestris. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). 
A sawfly with black abdomen with a central broad yellowish band. Antennae and legs are yellowish
Male: 9 - 12 mm. Female: 12 - 14 mm. The larvae feed on various herbaceous plants. The sawfly catch insects. April - September. Europa. Photos 24-5-2011.  
          
Tenthredo livida. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). .. Tenthredo livida. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). . Tenthredo livida. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Tenthredo livida. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Tenthredo livida. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). 
The thorax and the head are black with a white area around the mouth. The abdomen is variable in colour from black to red. Black antennas have a white tip (like T. balteata, T. bipunctula, T. colon and T. ferruginea).  Wings with a striking two-tone pterostigma.
They feed on small insects and nectar and pollen from flowers mainly from the Apiaceae family. The larvae feed on leaves of many plants.
Length 10-15 mm. May - September. Photos 10-7-2016.
  
Tenthredo notha. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Tenthredo notha. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Tenthredo notha. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). 500 from our house..
A striking black with yellow sawfly It looks like T. arcuata and T. brevicornis. They feed on small insects and nectar and pollen from flowers mainly from the Apiaceae family. The larvae feed mainly on clover.
Length 8-11 mm. June - September.
Photos 18-7-2016.  
Tenthredo mesomela. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae)... Tenthredo mesomela. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).. Tenthredo mesomela. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).  Tenthredo mesomela. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae).
A black and green sawfly. Antennas, part of the pronotum, top abdomen are black. Face shoulders, scutellum, underside of the abdomen are green. The legs are also green with black.
The adult sawfly feeds on pollen and honey from umbellifers as well as small insects. The larvae can be found in different species of plants like buttercup and knotweed.

Length 9,5 - 13 mm. May, July.
Europe. Asia. Photos 19-5-2014.  
Tenthredopsis scutellaris.   Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Female... Tenthredopsis scutellaris.   Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Female. Tenthredopsis scutellaris. Subfamily Tenthredininae. Family Common sawflies (Tenthredinidae). Female.
The male has a different color. The rear thigh of the male is light, of the female dark. The female has black abdomen with a central broad red band. 
In the Netherlands it is quite rare. Length 10 - 12 mm. May, June. Photos 8-6-2012.         


Xyelidae.
The Xyelidae are a small family of sawflies. Known fossil record of more than 200 million years ago. So they are among the oldest living insect families. In many species the larvae feed on pollen or live in buds of conifers (pine, spruce). However, there are some species that feed on foliage of deciduous trees.

Xyela spec. Family Xyelidae... Xyela spec. Family Xyelidae.  Xyela spec. Family Xyelidae.
In the Netherlands there are three species: Xyela curva, Xyela julii and Xyela longula.
A small sawfly with very striking antennae. The first segments are thick and long. The rest of the antenna consists of small segments. The legs are brown orange. The head and body are yellow orange brown, brown drawn.
The females have an ovipositor. Length about 5 mm. Photos 18-4-2014.
  
Xyela curva. Family Xyelidae.  .. Xyela curva. Family Xyelidae.  . Xyela curva. Family Xyelidae.    Xyela curva. Family Xyelidae.   
This wasp I found in the dunes on the ground among the leaves under pines. According to Ad Mol it's a Xyela curva. Thanks to the pictures of the underside it could be identified. Especially the wide and curved shape of the sheath of the ovipositor is important. See the drawing on page 201

Xyela curva is found in black pine (Pinus nigra). There the eggs are laid. The larvae feed on pollen of pinus. Photos 10-4-2017.
  

 

A beautiful site with much information The Garden Safari     Information about bees and wasps www.bwars.com/Gallery.htm .
Informatie over vliegen kun je ook vragen bij Diptera.info   Information about Chrysididae Chrysis.net

 

I want to thank everyone, who has helped me on waarneming.nl and forum.hymis.de to identify. In particular Jorgen Ravoet.

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